It is the most congenial expression to define the great opportunity that lies ahead of us, or that "journey of change" that leads to membership in the European Union. However, before the integration process there is a long and demanding approach, and there is no need to delude oneself, the promoter and supporter of these processes cannot be only the Albanian State, but the entire civil society, the companies, the professionals, public officials, students, Albanian citizens.
It is in this perspective that on the one hand it is necessary to make a square, to try to move consciences and with them public opinion to exert constant pressure on the institutions and on the other it is extremely necessary to favor the generational turnover, through the right to vote, starting with the next legislature.
All this enthusiasm finds its cause in the recent events that have directly affected our country, I refer to the signing in the 2006 of the Stabilization and Association Agreement (ratified by most of the member states), together with the Accession Partnership approved in the 2007 and the IPA (2007-2013 period) the developments in question have made the prospect of approaching the EU as tangible as it is concrete.
The importance of the A.
A. is also evident from the roadmap proposed by the Commission in the 2005 and accepted by the Council in the 2006 with reference to the countries of the Western Balkans, where it is stated that «the satisfactory results of a country regarding the respect of the obligations deriving from its stabilization agreement and of association will be essential requirements on which the EC will be based to examine a possible application for membership »
To better understand the value and scope of these agreements it is necessary to keep in mind that they are tools provided by the accession strategy, defined for each process and for each country, candidate or possible candidate, in order to support their preparation for future membership. The accession strategy has proved to be an effective means of allowing states to align with the EC gradually, also creating a financing system that is directly proportionate to the results actually achieved (IPA).
To understand the context in which the aforementioned agreements are placed, it is sufficient to highlight the main instruments that compose it in the accession strategy, namely:
Bilateral agreements; concluded between the EC, member states and each candidate country, serve as a bilateral framework for dialogue and negotiations. It is the case of the Stabilization and Association Agreement signed in Luxembourg on July 12 '06 after three years of negotiations. The entry into force is expected at the deposit of the 27-ratification, and Germany, Greece and France are missing; from the 6 December '06 instead the Interim agreement for trade and cooperation is in force. commercial.
A. aims to support Albania in strengthening the rule of law and democracy; to contribute to political, economic and institutional stability as well as regional stability; ensuring political dialogue between the parties; the development of international economic cooperation also through the adaptation of legislation to that of the Community, fostering development until the progressive establishment of a free trade area between the Community and Albania, and finally implementing regional cooperation.
Accession partnerships form, for each country, an individual framework in order to help them prepare for their membership. So far three Councils have been approved by the Council, of which the last in the 2007 has been approved with a Council Decision on a proposal from the Commission due to the considerations contained in the Progress Report 2007. The Partnership sets out in detail the priority principles and sectors (in the form of short and medium term priorities) based on the Copenhagen criteria and for which we must strengthen our institutions, infrastructures, legislation and undertake reforms in specific sectors. The peculiarity of this political-programmatic tool lies in the fact that the document evolves with Progress Reports, takes note of the goals achieved and sets new priorities.
National programs for the adoption of the acquis communautaire (PNAA) are foreseen by the Accession Partnerships and are established by each candidate country. They present a calendar to implement the priorities defined by the PA and the human and financial resources assigned for this purpose.
IPA or pre-accession assistance instrument, has as its legal basis the REG 1085 / 2006 of the Council, constitutes financial aid for the candidate countries (and potential candidates). The interventions provided for under the IPA can concern five measures but towards Albania, a potentially candidate country, two "only" are coming together: support for the transition and strengthening of the institutions; cross-border cooperation. The IPA for the 2009 if approved provides a fund of 90 million EURO, should come into force according to the relevant Calendar for the first measurement between July and September 09.
This is the Albanian perspective in the immediate future. Beyond this is the accession procedure, from which a radical change in our society separates us; as well as the gradual abandonment of anachronistic logic schemes, alas very common in our country. The prime example is the citizens who do not look at the management of the public res as a priority for the well-being of all but as something foreign to their interests. The fact that a draft law on common and mandatory property in buildings has caused a wave of misunderstanding by property owners is proof of this. Some do not conceive the payment of expenses for maintaining the stairs in good condition because they mistakenly believe that they are not their property. In short, to give hope to this country, we must invest in culture, and explain and teach young people, future citizens of the union, that being a European citizen means sharing certain values, one of these is also the right to a better future. Future that we cannot build without first bridging the past. To do this there is only one opportunity, represented by the 'train of change'; the Brussels Express arrived at the station. It's up to all of us to make our country rise. To complete the picture, there is no fundamental element, that is, the accession procedure as set out in Article 49 of the EC Treaty.
In a nutshell, the accession procedure is divided into three phases, the first of which, the Preliminary Phase, has been established in practice only recently with the accession of Romania and Bulgaria in the 2007. In this phase C.
D. of the Pre-Accession Negotiations, the candidate states must demonstrate that they meet certain rectius criteria, that is to say that they must exist at the time of accession. These criteria were established by the European Council of Copenhagen of the 1993, from which they take the name, and consist of: Political criteria.
The achievement of institutional stability is necessary to guarantee democracy, the principle of legality, human rights, respect for and protection of minorities, the affirmation of the rule of law.
The existence of a functioning market economy as well as the ability to respond to competitive pressures to market forces within the union.
Criteria relating to the acquis communautaire.
The ability of the candidate states to accept and maintain the obligations deriving from belonging to the European Community including adherence to the objectives of an economic and monetary union.
Only after the verification exercise, the Commission certifies compliance with the aforementioned criteria by publishing a verification report for the candidate country, in which it examines in particular the ability of the candidate country to comply with the obligation to apply the entire acquis from day one accession, the European Council authorizes the actual negotiations.
This leads to the second and third phases taking place simultaneously. The second phase ends within the Community institutions. It begins with the transmission of the application for membership to the Council which decides on admission unanimously, after consulting the Commission and following the assent of the European Parliament.
The third phase takes place outside, defining the conditions for admission and the technical adaptations to the founding Treaties. The conclusion of an international agreement (accession treaty) will follow between member states on one side and candidate on the other, the treaty thus signed will be ratified by each of the contracting states in accordance with their respective constitutional requirements.
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