In the early morning of11 April 1985, has ceased to beat the heart of one of the fiercest dictators that human history since the Second World War has ever known. He was the most orthodox Marxist-Leninist, the most faithful Stalinist, Enver hoxha.
His image is configured in the most dramatic and grotesque aspects of the anti-democratic self-isolation that he provided for his people.
Hoxha and his regime have been accused of causing thousands of victims.
RJ Rummel hypothesized 100. 000 kills (1945-87).
The Washington Times 15 February 1994 estimated from 5.000 to 25.000 political executions. The WHPS spoke of 5.235 opponents of the regime executed by the 1948 at the 1952. The last digit is the one provided by the 8 August 1997 from the New York Times, which spoke of 5.000 political executions.
The great turning points of Hoxha, against Yugoslavia, against the USSR and finally against China, have brought repressions even within his party. There have been repeated arrests and killings of clerics, involved or not with the past regime and the occupiers and an intimidation of the owners that accompanied the collectivization of the economy.
A particular vehemence of the dictator turned against the Catholic church. During the regime 3 bishops were killed, 60 diocesan priests, 30 religious Franciscans, 13 Jesuits, 10 seminarians and 8 nuns. Almost all of the clergy have suffered decades of imprisonment, deprivation, forced labor whose most recent testimony is that of Cardinal Ernest Simoni who heartily forgave his jailers.
The "Sigurimi" followed as repressive methods those of the NKVD, MGB, KGB, the Stasi of East Germany and the Securitate in Romania. In the 1977 one third of the Albanians were imprisoned in labor camps or interrogated by the Sigurimi. Tortures were used to obtain confessions.
After the exit from the Warsaw Pact, Hoxha had almost half a million single-seater concrete bunkers built to be used as guard posts and weapons collection centers to defend themselves against a hypothetical foreign attack.
This is a premise to be able to say firmly and without a trace of doubt that we are dealing with a mad criminal who dragged his country towards ruin.
But who was Enver Hoxha?
Enver hoxha he was the son of a merchant of Gjirokastra and the 16 October of the 1908 is born. Student for years since he could not finish his studies nor at theUniversity of Montpellier in France, nor in that in law a Brussels.
During his studies he became acquainted with many activists of the French Communist Party like Maurice Thorez, Henri Barbuse and Louis Aragon. It was then that he became a follower of Marxism and supporter of Stalin.
In March of 1938, was sent into Soviet Union where he spent more than a year translating Stalin's books into Albanian. In July of 1947 Hoxha met for the first time Stalin e Motov.
Under the directives and helped by the Yugoslav communists, he took the leadership of the Albanian Communist Party.
The 29 November of the 1944 took power. He used the Soviet Union as a model. Relations with Yugoslavia stiffened following the break between Tito and Stalin in the 1948.
In the 1968 it also broke relations with Russia as a reaction to the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia.
After this break, Hoxha invites his people to "live and work as in a siege", Using the propaganda methods and slogans used in the Soviet Union in the 1930s. Thus, he copies and activates the economic and social system of the Stalinist era.
In 1967, after two decades of increasingly strong atheism, Hoxha declared triumphantly that the nation was the first country where state atheism was written in the Constitution.
Parents were forbidden to give their children religious names. The streets in the cities or villages that bore saints' names were renamed with names of the heroes who died during the war.
In the 1977 the article 55 of the penal code established the imprisonment from 3 to 10 years for religious propaganda.
According to a report by Amnesty International published in the 1984, the status of human rights in Albania was bleak under Hoxha.
Freedom of speech, religion, the press and association were canceled with a law of the 1977, to guarantee stability and order.
In 1976 relations with China were cut off because Hoxha did not agree that China had agreed with the United States of America and this marked the political and economic isolation of Albania, so Hoxha stood as an anti-revisionist bulwark.
In the 1981 he ordered the arrest and execution of several party and government leaders accused of corruption and counter-revolutionary activity.
But one of the experiments that Enver tried on his people was that of creating "The new man“, A human model for the whole world, transforming it into a denatured person. The young Albanian had to be definitely his clone "Enverist"
His new form, invented in the womb of Marxism-Leninism and preserved in the ideological vessel of the time, represented, in effect, the culmination of deception, of absurd action, but also of human ugliness.
In the year 1973 suffered a heart attack and had many health problems. During the year 1980 was diagnosed with diabetes and underwent cerebral ischemia in the 1983, which he started again in the 1984. Following him, a team of Chinese and French doctors arrived in Albania.
11 April 1985 died in Tirana.
His funeral ceremony was accompanied by a great ritual of homage, as in the psychosis of the people it seemed that from that moment on Albania would not have had a future. His body was placed in the martyrs' cemetery.
In the 1990, with the fall of the dictatorial regime he installed, every emblem and symbol was completely destroyed and he qualified as a dictator.
28 years of the fall of communism have passed, but even today, no trial has been promoted against those responsible for crimes against the people.
As always, Albania remains a unique case.
- 20 February 1991: Albania marks 27 years from the collapse of the statue of the dictator Enver Hoxha in Tirana
- Nicola Pedrazzi - Italy that dreamed of Enver
- 17 November 1944: What is the historical truth about the liberation of Tirana?