The research by the same title conducted by the Dossier Caritas / Migrantes and Social Editor, shows that the thesis "more immigration equals more crime" is unfounded and the crime rate between Italians and foreigners regularly present in Italy is substantially the same.
With the increase in immigrant residents, does crime also increase proportionally? Do resident immigrants have a higher crime rate than Italians? Is it true that irregular immigrants have an abnormal crime rate? These are the three questions underlying the research "The crime of immigrants: data, interpretations and prejudices", promoted by the Dossier Caritas / Migrantes team and by the Social Editor. Presented in October of the 2009, it remains a very useful material for a "non-fear education" because it teaches how the correct interpretation of statistics disregards the distorted representation of a social phenomenon, in this that of immigration.
The only way to be able to conduct a differential analysis of the crime rate between Italians and foreigners, as specified in the research, is to take into account the data for the reporting of crimes against known authors. In this case, the latest judicial statistics prepared by ISTAT stop at the year 2005, and the data relating to the five-year period 2001 - 2005 are examined in the research.
Meanwhile, we learn that the complaints against known authors constitute just under a quarter of the total. For example in the 2005 were 550.590 out of a total of 2.579.124 complaints. This means that three quarters of the crimes were committed by unknown persons. A fact that in itself demonstrates the extent of fear and insecurity that these crimes can generate, often amplified even more by politics. But it also shows how distorted the presumption of guilt against migrant citizens as perpetrators of crimes thanks to phrases such as "presumably" and "perhaps" associated with their nationality. Still today, unfortunately, the media use the "presumably Albanian", "perhaps Romanian" or "Slavic accent" definitions in the crime news, so as not to leave any crime offense. In the end, the unknown of the “usual Albanians” are more afraid. In the overall complaints against known Italian and foreign authors between the 2001 and the 2005, the incidence of foreigners on the total has increased by 6.4%, going from 17% to 23.8% . On the other hand, comparing this increase with that of the immigrant population in Italy, the equation "more immigration equals more crime" does not hold. Faced with an increase in the 45,9% of the complaints, the resident population has increased by 100% (from 1.334.889 to 2.670.514), given the latter which does not include regular citizens but not yet resident (several hundred thousand) and those without documents (at the time estimated at 1 million). Estimated crime rate: Italians and foreigners"The statistics available on regular, carefully correlated immigrants lead to overcoming the idea of a higher crime rate than Italians, thus removing the prejudice that accredits them as criminals". It is one of the conclusions of the research and the basis of the methodology used by the team of scholars for estimating the crime rate between Italians and foreigners. Of the comparative data between Italians, foreigners regularly present in Italy and foreign residents, we report a summary of the first two.
From a first comparison based on the total number of foreign citizens reported with a residence permit, the crime rate for 2005 is 0,75% for Italians and 1.21% for foreigners regularly present. In other words, one reported every Italian 133 and one every 81 foreigners. Instead, the comparison of data based on the breakdown of people reported by age groups, gives us a different panorama: the crime rate of foreigners is higher than that of the Italians of the 0,39% for the age group 18 - 44 years, but it is lower than the 0,21% for that 45 - 64 years. Instead the over 65enni have the same crime rate. In particular, for the 18 - 44 age group, it is 1,50% for Italians and 1,89% for foreigners. For the 45 - 64 years, it is 0,65% for Italians and 0,44% for foreigners. For the over 65enni, it is 0,12% for both Italians and foreigners. It should be noted that higher crime rates for both Italians and foreigners in their respective age classes are also due to a greater incidence on the population of these classes of age. In other words, the foreigners among the 18 and the 44 years make up the 60,9% of the foreign population, instead the Italians of the same age range only the 36,7% of the native population. Instead for the 45 - 64 age class, Italians make up the 25,8% of the native population and foreigners the 15%.
And therefore, maintaining the crime rate effectively recorded and assuming a breakdown by age classes to that of foreigners, the crime rate of Italians would be 1,02%, very close to the 1,24 registered for foreigners regularly present in Italy. Ie a complaint every Italian 90 and one every foreign 81.
But also taking into account the different legal status of foreigners with respect to Italians: the 16,9% of complaints against foreigners can be directly or indirectly linked to immigration legislation, the crime rate between Italians and foreigners becomes substantially the same: of 1,02% for Italians and of the 1,03% for foreigners regularly present. "Indeed, if one were to take into account the most unfavorable socio-economic and family conditions of immigrants, as repeatedly pointed out by scholars in the sector, the scale would end up hanging on their side."
Analysis of foreign crimeAnother passage of the research of which we report a summary concerns the reading of the crime of foreigners in Italy. 8 the points shared by the team of scholars. Crime trends are affected by the young population most prone to commit crimes: decreasing among Italians and increasing among immigrants. The latter are more likely to be denounced, arrested and imprisoned because of "their position as precarious in the Italian legal system". Immigrants are also "the natural protagonists" of crimes related to immigration legislation or "instrumental to guarantee their stay in Italy", and by excluding this type of crime "the penal charge against them would be reduced by at least a quarter". Other crimes, as in the case of vuccumprà, "are aimed at achieving an economic profit in difficult survival conditions". Furthermore, they are also at risk: in one case, every six are victims of violent crimes against the person.
Most complaints against foreigners concern common crimes or petty crime, in which the individual immigrant is involved. However, foreigners are increasingly active in organized crime, in which they very often recruit labor among irregular immigrants. And the 71,1% of the complaints against foreign citizens in the 2005 are the responsibility of the illegal immigrants. But for the research team "the equalization of irregular immigrants with criminals is groundless". They are the precarious legal and socio-economic conditions that expose irregular workers to the black market, to devices not allowed by law and exploitation by criminal organizations. And with the introduction of the crime of clandestinity from the security package in the 2009, even the fact of not being in order has assumed criminal relevance. Therefore, rather than arriving at hasty conclusions at the expense of irregular immigrants, we must “reflect on the difficulty of the immigration routes
regular ion ”.
The research "The crime of immigrants: data, interpretations and prejudices", promoted by the Dossier Caritas / Migrantes team and by the Social Editor, was published in the "2010 Guide for social information" published by Redattore Sociale and is can heon his site. A synthetic version appears in the Caritas / Migrantes 2009 Immigration Statistical Dossier.
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