Presented for the twentieth consecutive year the
Foreigners and the economy
Several studies, including that of the Bank of Italy in July 2009, have highlighted the complementary function of immigrant workers able to promote better employment opportunities for Italians. If they were to fail, or to cease to grow, in the productive sectors considered unattractive by the Italians (in agriculture, in construction, in industry, in the family sector and in many other services), the country would be unable to face the future.
The Dossier, in the surveys conducted on the benefits and costs of immigration, showed that immigrants pay more to the public purse than they take as users of social services and services. This is almost 11 billions of social security and tax contributions a year that have contributed to the recovery of INPS's budget, since they are young workers and, therefore, still far from the retirement age. They also declare to the tax authorities over 33 billion a year.
There are about 400 thousand foreigners among business owners, administrators and partners of companies, to which must be added the respective employees. In Milan the Egyptian pizza makers are more than the Neapolitan ones, just as there are numerous Chinese textile entrepreneurs in Carpi (Modena) and Prato, and those of tanning in Arzignano (Vicenza), in this case not only Chinese but also Serbs. Every 30 entrepreneurs operating in Italy 1 is an immigrant, with a prevalence of Moroccans, dedicated to trade, and Romanians, more inclined to building entrepreneurship.
The Romanian community is the most numerous, with just under 1 million presences (almost 900 thousand residents); followed by Albanians and Moroccans, almost half a million, while Chinese and Ukrainians are almost 200 thousand. Overall, these community 5 cover more than half of the immigrant presence (50,7%). Europeans are half of the total, Africans a little less than a fifth and Asians sixth, while Americans account for a tenth.
Foreigners and security
For the Albanians (2008) it has been shown that their stigma has continued due to inertia even in the 2000 years when, once the flows stabilized, their relevance in criminal statistics was actually strongly reduced, but the fears and the sense of insecurity of Italians mainly depend on other factors, considering that: 1. crime in Italy has increased moderately over the last few decades, despite the sharp increase in the foreign population, and has even decreased over the years 2008 and 2009; 2. the rate of increase in complaints against foreign citizens is very low compared to the increase in their presence, so it is groundless (and not only for the Dossier) to establish a strict correspondence between the two phenomena: this is also apparent, as regards the different provinces, from the statistical collection prepared for the Territorial Immigration Councils under the European Integration Fund (2010) and, as regards the main immigrant communities (with some exceptions), from the CNEL Report on integration indices (2010); 3. the CNEL Report showed that the crime rate attributable to immigrants who came from scratch in our country, those on which fears are most concentrated, was, in the 2005-2008 period, lower than that referred to the resident population; 4. the comparison between the criminality of Italians and that of foreigners, through a rigorous methodology based on the consideration of homogeneous age classes, has allowed to conclude that Italians and foreigners in a regular position have a similar crime rate; 5. the same criminal involvement of unauthorized immigrants to the stay, undeniable, difficult to quantify and often directly linked to the same irregularity of the presence and the difficult living conditions that ensue, must be examined with prudence and with rigor in a country where dozens annually enter of millions of foreigners as tourists or for other reasons. These interpretative lines must not lead to "lower the guard", but rather to overcome preconceptions and invest more in prevention and recovery, involving the associative leaders of immigrants, as happened in the past with positive results among the Senegalese.
The contrast of landings must not make us forget that in the vast majority of cases the origin of the irregularity is the legal admissions in Italy, with or without a visa, of tens of millions of foreigners arriving for tourism, business, visits and other reasons . Compared to these imposing and non-eliminable flows, even the maximum point of landings reached in the 2008 (almost 37 thousand people) is very little.
Following a realistic perspective, Eurostat has specified that the mirage of a "zero immigration" in half a century would make Italy lose one-sixth of its population.
Italians seem distant, in their perception, from an adequate framework of this reality. In the Transatlantic Trends (2009) research, on average, the interviewees felt that immigrants account for 23% on the resident population (they would therefore be around 15 million, three times more than their actual size) and that the "clandestines" are more numerous than the regular migrants (while the estimates credit a number around half a million). Various factors influence this distorted perception, including political affiliation.
ITALY. Prime5collectivity of foreign residents (31.12.2009)Country of citizenship Total% vert. Country of citizenship Total% vert.Romania 887.763 21,0Albania 466.684 11,0 Morocco 431.529 10,2 Chinese, People's Republic of 188.352 Ukraine 174.129 4,Total 4.235.059 100,0SOURCE: Caritas / Migrantes Immigration Statistical Dossier. Based on Istat data
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