Who was the real Qazim Mulleti, appointed as prefect of Tirana during the Italian occupation of Albania?
Without legitimizing or not his political-social position, as his image was denigrated in the comedy "Prefekti" - "The Prefect" made during the dictatorship.
Qazim Mulleti, the Albanian "artistic dissident" during the years of the dictatorship
The denigration of authoritative political and intellectual Albanian dissidents, by the Enver Hoxha regime through art.
The grotesque figure of the Prefect of Tirana, Qazim Mulleti in the play with the title of the same name, that of the "Prefect".
17 November 1944 - 17 November 2017. 73th anniversary of the Liberation of Tirana from the Germans.
A very well-known and powerful tool, an integral part of the mechanism of revenge and ruthless hatred in the hands of the totalitarian regime in power for half a century in Albania, was undoubtedly that of using the means of communication - management of censorship including and art in its various expressions and forms - such as newspapers, television and radio for the daily denigration of the dissidents of the regime and of all intellectual figures or former public officials during the monarchy of the King Zog and later, during the Italian occupation of Albania, the landowners, the wealthy lords to whom, with the rise of communism, all the assets were confiscated with the introduction of the concept of class struggle and the abolition of property private, such as: the bey, aga and kulaki, immediately after the war in the 1944.
Of the people belonging to the aforementioned categories, with the victory of the communists of Enver hoxha , those who failed to flee abroad, were arrested with total clean-up operations starting from 1944 and later imprisoned, convicted and killed after judicial judgments or even without trial. Their families were persecuted for life and interned in the Albanian internment camps.
One of these figures denigrated during the years of totalitarianism in Albania, with serious consequences such as the persecution of his wife, that of his only son and a whole family, since we are talking about the capital, was undoubtedly the prefect of Tirana, Qazim Mulleti, The Albanian "artistic dissident" during the years of the dictatorship.
Who was the real Qazim Mulleti?
Qazim Mulleti was born in Tirana on December 20 1893 and died as an exile the 28 August 1956 in Vicolo delle Grotte, Rome.
The first higher studies began Bitola , (Manastir) today's Macedonia, to continue at the gymnasium Zosimea of Giannina, Greece and then complete university studies at imperial college "Galatasaray" of Istanbul with excellent results. He was a polyglot. It is said that he knew nine foreign languages.
In the 1912 he participated in the ceremony of the proclamation of theAlbanian independence from the Ottoman Empire.
In the 1914 he was one of the four helpers of the Prince Wied , prince of Albania.
He left Albania to Vienna with Prince Wied, where he lived up to the 1931 as a political emigrant. Meanwhile in Vienna he attended an academy where he specialized in studies of military diplomatic warfare. He also met in Vienna Hajrie, also a native tyrant, heir to a very wealthy family.
She also emigrated to Vienna, became his wife in the 1929 and their only son, Reshit, was born from their union. Later, Qazim Mulleti returned to Albania having been involved in the political and social field in the most important events in the country and finally, after various comings and goings abroad, he waited for the fall of the King Zog's monarchy, as a dissident of the latter, obtaining the post of the prefect of Tirana, in the period in which Albania was under Italian occupation, when King Zog himself had recently exiled.
He was prefect of Tirana in the period March 1942- October 1944, years in which he worked a lot for his Tirana and was loved and respected by the autochthonous Tiranesi and by all the people of Tirana.
Sensing the presence of the risk he was running, accused as a collaborator of the Nazi-fascists, he took refuge abroad in September 1944 to avoid falling into the hands of the Albanian communists. However, failing to bring his wife and their only child with him. They remained in Albania.
Two months later, precisely the November 29, 1944 the liberation of Albania from the fascist occupation occurred. It was the end of the war and marked the immediate rise of the communist regime of Enver Hoxha.
As a result, the merciless struggle for dissidents began.
The wife and son Reshit, after the seizure of all their property, were taken to the monstrous Albanian internment camps. The prefect's wife, Ms. Hajrie spent her whole life in these fields, until she closed her eyes. He died in the tremendous camp of Savër, Lushnjë, Albania in the 1980, after long suffering, illness and maltreatment in one of the many wooden and sheet metal shacks.
With the arrival of democracy - the beginning of the '90' - the son of Qazim Mulleti, prefect of Tirana, Reshit Mulleti, survived the forty-five years of ordeal in the Albanian internment camps, where he had been confined with his mother, returned to his Tirana. Reshit died in Tirana from a heart attack indicatively in the 2000.
Their property had by now taken possession of strangers. And their lives above all ...
Who was instead the grotesque character with the same name, Qazim Mulleti in the Albanian socialist realism comedy?
How was the character painted by the homonymous name Qazim Mulleti, protagonist of the denigrating comedy staged during totalitarianism, "Prefekti" - "The Prefect"?
The tragedy of the real life of the family of the prefect of Tirana, enclosed in a comedy, as a denigrating communist theatrical representation.
From the plot written by the Albanian author Besim Levonja, in the 1948, then just four years after the end of the war, the comedy: "Prefekti" - "The Prefect", referring to the ridicule of the figure of the prefect of Tirana.
In the 1948, in an Albania that had recently come out exhausted by the war, while movies were not yet screened in the cinema, the shows then began, including the brilliant comedy "The Prefect" - "Prefekti", written by Besim Levonja arbitrarily, following the stereotypes that the communist censorship imposed to discredit the enemies of the regime, which describes the figure of Qazim Mulleti, prefect of Tirana, as a bizarre, ridiculous person, as illiterate, as a high ignorant public official who speaks only in the Tiranese dialect, not in the standard Albanian language, accompanied by a family, with his wife and son, also ignorant, supported in his post as prefect of Tirana by a working group made up of as many incompetent, stupid, backward and obtuse . The protagonist's role was entrusted to the actor Mihal Popi.
Moreover, after the echo of the success of the play and seeing that they are used to mock them, the real names of the prefect, his wife and son, this thing for the boy was the cause of teasing, marginalization and mistreatment at school by the comrades.
Ironically the author himself Besim Levonja, who wrote and ridiculed the figure of the prefect of Tirana in his comedy, had actually been an ex-partisan during the war, imprisoned by the fascists during the period when the real Qazim Mulleti he held the role of prefect of Tirana and it was precisely this last one who sent him out of prison, signing for the release of the detainee in question.
The son of the prefect, Reshit, during the interviews released with the arrival of democracy - having been the only survivor of the family from the internment camps after well 45 years of ordeal - with such elegance, he never criticized the comedy, not even the friend of the family, the author of the plot and expressed that:
"In art, everything is allowed, including the hyperbole and sarcastic exaggerations of the plays."
The true prefect of Tirana, years 1942-1944, Qazim Mulleti, becomes an Albanian "artistic dissident" during the years of the dictatorship.
Given that in theatrical performances, the play was brilliant and artistically, of undisputed value - a value that the work still preserves today in the Albanian art scene and to be distinguished from the indoctrinated content of the time in which it was launched - in the following years the cinematography has dealt with it. The film came out and therefore, film was made.
This time in the 1982, the main role of the prefect Qazim Mulleti in the film has been entrusted to one of the greatest actors ever existed in the history of Albanian cinema, Robert Ndrenika . The part of his wife, on the other hand, has played her very well as the great Albanian actress Behije Çela.
The brilliant film too, has achieved enormous success with regard to the technical realization and the excellent artistic interpretation of the leading actor and of the entire cast but, at the same time, even on the following Albanian generations, has influenced to inculcate the myth of the crude and ignorant figure of the prefect of Tirana, Qazim Mulleti, amplifying his public denigration.
With the arrival of democracy, at the beginning of the 90 in Albania, it was the same actor who played the leading role in the comedy "The Prefect", the star of the Albanian cinema, Robert Ndrenika, who officially offered his apologies to his wife and son true prefect of Tirana, Qazim Mulleti, recognizing his own delicate situation inherent in the professional career as an actor during the years of the dictatorship, as regards the roles to him and to all his fellow actors, imposed to be interpreted - in the precise case, the role of the prefect of Tirana he interpreted - bowing to the life ordeal of the families of the true prefect of Tirana, Qazim Mulleti and to the pain of their persecution in the barracks of the internment camps by the monstrous Albanian totalitarian regime.
The play "Prefekti" - "The Prefect" (in Albanian)
Proposal for "reverse censorship" in Albania today, in a democracy
The appeal by the head of the Institute of Crimes of Communism to censor nowadays the films of the communist period, made and projected in Albania before the 90 years.
Or rather: in an initiative that has taken institutional form, involving a large number of Albanian film art experts, actors, directors and screenwriters, media representatives, writers and politicians are asked to ban the Albanian socialist realism films, considered defamatory for a good part of the population of Albania.
Recently, in Albania, enormous public opinion has taken on the spread of the appeal by the head of the Communist Crimes Institute to no longer permit the publication of all Albanian cinematographic works made during totalitarianism, in how much they offend public sensibility by raising the cult of the spy to the detriment of the people and the informant at the service of the state, the denigration of the so-called reactionary figures or of all the dissidents of the regime, the clergy etc ...
Certainly this initiative has sparked strong debates in various Albanian artistic, intellectual, social and political spheres dividing opinions into pros and cons.
There is a part of the people - including the initiator of the appeal itself - which claims if not to totally censor the films, to cut off pieces of it, to determine at least a specific time slot for their transmission - for the damage that could cause on the education of minors, of the new generations, for the wrong messages that they could get from seeing their contents from the strong ideological hammering - and the addition of subtitles or explanations on the context in which the films were made, their true goal or message they intended to convey, following the patterns of communist censorship.
All with the aim of avoiding the influence of the people from nostalgia for the old totalitarian system, so as to avoid the spread of the epidemic "nostalgic of the system" and not only: not to rage further with the spread of these projections that have to center of their plots the denigration of the enemies of the communist system of the dictatorship period in Albania, do not turn a knife on the sore, touching the suffering that people marginalized and persecuted by the system had already suffered on their own skin and that of their family members in their real life and no longer to artistic fiction.
And there is the other part of the people who firmly believe that, apart from human intent, this initiative goes against the art itself.
Art cannot be explained! With partially censored films, cutting out pieces or adding explanations, the whole category of artists would be offended in this way. The things treated in those films are all understood, there is no need for explanations ... The reasons for the construction of those specific indoctrinated stereotypes are well known by the Albanians.
Artistic creativity, despite being those carried out under censorship in dictatorship, bears the mark of the time that ran and there is an awareness of this by everyone. Of course, one cannot deny the commitment, the talent in acting, the dedication of a whole generation of artists in Albania, of thickness and that the whole world would envy us.
In an Albania in which the previous totalitarian regime had as a powerful weapon centered in its hands, the destruction and elimination of everything that went against its line, having been destroyed various sources of artistic, religious and cultural heritage of Albania, not today we can demonstrate in democracy, using the same mechanism of destruction for artistic works realized in the darkest period of the life of the Albanian people, totalitarianism.
The new generations indeed, need to know the past of Albania, the life context of their loved ones and the television documentation, the artistic and cinematographic heritage are an invaluable source of information.
Art, with its universal effect, would act as the opposite, as a tool for not forgetting and would not incite nostalgia for that system from which the Albanians would no longer be afraid.
The Albanians should instead face its consequences face to face, with the knowledge that history knows itself more deeply if it is faced, not avoiding it, even fearing to "poison itself" by watching an indoctrinated film of the past ...
In summary, it is important to put all the new historical information that has emerged on the same level and compare it.
Without taking anything for granted, but in a scientific way to analyze the content and progress of historical events in the life of the Tiranese people and of all the Albanian people.
Therefore, the rehabilitation of the well-known public figures of Tirana and Albanians in general, whose reputation has been seriously compromised by the totalitarian regime of Enver Hoxha, is simply a right for the Albanians, not only because it is one of the fundamental principles of human rights, but also to safeguard its dignity, as a people, as a nation.
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