After the suppression of the 1703 rebellion, Sultan Ahmed III undertook a series of reforms with the help of the Grand Vizier Nevsehirli Ibrahim Pascià for balancing the budget, raising taxes and reducing the number of Janissaries paid by the state.
After 1718 the empire undertook a policy of "peace" with the European powers. This policy led by the Grand Vizier Nevsehirli Ibrahim Pasha led to an economic growth and cultural revitalization known as the tulip era (Lale Devri), which indicates the fashion for tulips that developed some segments of Ottoman society. New buildings were built, private and public, on European models, palaces, fountains, aqueducts, and gardens. Ministries and government buildings were rebuilt, schools and mosques were repaired, ministers competed with each other for the construction of schools and mosques, changing the appearance of the Bosphorus area. Also culturally there was an awakening, partially following the Ottoman tradition, but partially bringing other novelties in style, contents and interests. This period that began in the 1718 ended abruptly in the 1730 due to a rebellion that broke out in Istanbul. In the summer of 1730, the new governor of Iran Nadir Shah, won in a battle against the Turkish forces and forced them to withdraw from the west of Iran. The news of the defeat spread in Istanbul by soldiers returning from the front, a war was being demanded against Russia and Iran to regain lost provinces. The Grand Vizier had imposed a new tax for the war, with the aim of collecting a new army, causing widespread discontent among the population of the capital. This new tax mainly affected small traders and artisans. The sultan and his Grand Vizier were camped in Uskudar, waiting for the Persian emissaries before marching against Iran.
There were reports according to which the Grand Vizier wanted to conclude a peace treaty with the Persian emissaries after learning of the withdrawal of the Turkish forces from the Iranian provinces, while the people of Istanbul continued to pay taxes for the war. The agreement with Iran and the continuing economic difficulties led to a new rebellion that shook the foundations of the Turkish empire. The 28 September 1730, a group of armed rebels 25-30 led by Patrona Halil gathered in the great bazaar of Istanbul, pulled out their swords and hoisted the green flag of the rebellion. They asked for the closure of the shops and the application of the sharia (Islamic law).
They marched from the imperial road to the market, distributed food to the Janissaries and camped in the racecourse. Many soldiers joined them, although the agha of the Janissaries refused. Ibrahim Efendi, a religion teacher, released a fatwa where he declared the revolt legal.
The rebels marched against Agha Kapi, the headquarters of the Janissaries, freed the prisoners who were there, then in the prisons of Baba Ca'fer, and even there they freed the prisoners who joined their liberators. They asked for the removal of eight dignitaries, including the Grand Vizier and his son-in-law, Mehmed Pasha. Some members of the ulama also supported the rebels' demands, they were against the war against other Muslims (Iran), against the treaty with Russia that ceded the Caucasian provinces to Russia, they opposed the political, economic and cultural reforms of Ibrahim Pasha and its close ties with France. Among the opponents of Ibrahim Pascià there was also Zulali Hasan Efendi, an Albanian, a former judge from Istanbul, removed from Ibrahim Pasha. Also the preacher of Aya Sophia, Isperizade, was against the Grand Vizier because of his moral and sexual conduct and supported the rebels.
Patrona Halil was an Albanian, known as Horpesteli Arnavut Halil, born in Horpesti near Monastir around the 1690, had been a sailor in the ship called Patron, had led a rebellion on board without success, had been sentenced to death, but had been rescued from the intervention of Kapudan Pascià (admiral of the Turkish fleet), he was scapegoated to Nish, had entered the Janissaries in the 17 regiment, in the 1718 he had participated in a failed rebellion against the governor of Vidin, a frontier town, where he had been sent to service. He was abducted in Istanbul, working as a peddler in the flea market, spending his days on the streets and nights in taverns. Here it became part of the Albanian network that constituted the marginal classes, many of which were ex-Janissaries and worked in public toilets. During a stunt in Galata, he killed one of his friends, was sentenced to death by the mayor of the city, and again was rescued by Kapudan Pasha.
With the Sultan's absence and his reluctance to use a fist, the number of rebels reached the 4000 units, including several Janissaries and many Albanians, within a few hours. The sultan and his entourage secretly returned, hoisting the flag of the prophet outside the palace as a symbol of call to arms to protect the caliphate, he promised to pay 25 silver coins to those who met them.
The rebels continued to attack and pillage the homes of state officials and distribute the money among his followers. Even Greek and Armenian poor had gathered at Patrona Halil. The rebels plundered the house of the mayor of Istanbul and the money threw them out of the window for the poor of Galata. They sacked and destroyed shops, markets, houses. The sultanosis turned to the preacher of Aya Sophia, Isperizade and Zulali Efendi, to intercede with the rebels, who asked for the removal of the Grand Vizier, Zulali Hasan Efendi had to return to his old function of judge, abolish the taxes imposed by the Grand Vizier and other requests. The sultan ordered the death of the Grand Vizier, his grandchildren, and his assistants and genres, Mustafa Pascià and Mehmed Pascià. The body of the Grand Vizier was handed over to the rebels who mistreated him on the streets of Istanbul, to then leave it to the dogs. Ibrahim Pascià's favorites were removed from their posts. Arrears were paid to the Janissaries. The new Sheyhulislam requested the removal of the Sultan and his replacement with his nephew, Mahmoud. The passage had the 1 October 1730.
The new sultan nullified the reforms of Ibrahim Pascià, and Patrona Halil became de facto for a couple of months the governor of Istanbul. Many Albanians reached the command posts. All this, however, attracted the hatred of a part of the population of Istanbul, to which the properties were plundered. While they were happy with the removal of Ibrahim Pasha, they were not happy with the disorders that followed.
The sultan decided to eliminate him, inviting him to the palace with the excuse of having named him governor of Rumelia together with another friend of his, by surprise the 25 November 1730 were attacked by the palace guards and were killed. The government ordered the execution of all the rebels and the expulsion of many Albanians from the city. About 7000 of their followers were slain. The repression lasted until December 1732. Many Albanians, even innocent ones, were persecuted for years. It was a rebellion of the most disadvantaged classes in Istanbul, which put a strain on the order of the Ottoman Empire. Its participants were artisans, ex-soldiers, salesmen, workers, which showed how social tensions in Istanbul led to violence and crime. The causes of this revolt were not only the increased taxes, but also the monetary instability due to the speculation on the currency and all the problems deriving from this, the problems due to the migration that involved the Istanbul at the beginning of the XVIII century, the people came from all over the empire, of different nationalities, the most problematic were the Albanians, adding social and ethnic ones to economic problems. It is believed that at the beginning of the rebellion there were some Albanian 12000 in Istanbul, which would form the core of the revolt.
Also important were the cultural factors, this rebellion would have led to the end of an era in Ottoman history, that of the tulip.
This revolt has often been described as a reactionary revolt of the Muslim fanatics against the western ways adopted by the court of Ahmed III. In a superficial vision they are right, but in reality it was against the excess of the elite and the disparity that reigned under the sultanate of Ahmed III. If the dignitaries were competing for those who built more, those who lavished large sums on charity, taxes increased and people were restless, they felt that despite the appearance something was wrong. The oppression was suffocating the population that saw the pomp of the sultan and those around him, who took care of the tulips, the empire had entered a new era of uncontrolled inflation, hunger and misery, with the government remaining to watch without doing anything. Occasional riots appeared in various parts of the empire, the gangs, impoverished peasants, military rebels known as levents (adventurers) began to lay down laws in various parts of Anatolia and Rumelia.
Two words to explain the difference between the vaccine (which generally requires only one administration or periodic administrations, such as every XNUMX years (as with the hepatitis B vaccine) and the antiviral drug (such as the cocktail for HIV-positive patients, who ingest molecules through daily pills that attack parts of the virus, to directly destroy it). The vaccine consists of the administration of molecules that mimick parts of the virus without being infectious, so that our immune system can develop a memory to recognize those parts (that particular type of antigen) when the virus comes back on the doorstep...this memory in some cases lasts all the life, in other cases (like hepatitis B) a decade or so. Once this immune memory has been developed in our body, the pathogen will have to deal with an extremely powerful arsenal of anti-viral mechanisms (orchestrated by our immune cells) that will kill it in no time (in fact, after we get vaccinated, if we get the flu, we get rid of it without even realizing it...our (memory) immune cells know what to do at that point). Another way to develop this memory is by letting ourselves to be infected — as we've done with lots of infections, with low mortality and low morbidity. The antiviral drug is a molecule that acts against the pathogen too, but it does so on its own — the basic problem of an antiviral is that it doesn't last forever, because everything we eat (the pills) is excreted from our body, in a few hours or few days — but there are also molecules that can float, once you put them into the circle, for quite a few days ...(or techniques that modern pharmacology has been studying for a decade or so, aimed to transform molecules with the objective of extending their permanence in the tissues after being administered, see above: nanotechnology therapy). BibliographyAhmet Qeriqi: Halil Patron, kryetrimi dhe kryengritësi më i madh i të gjitha kohëve, në Stamboll, Fjala and mbajtur në Akademinë përkujtimore kushtuar kryengritësit shqiptar, Halil Patron, organizuar nga Radio-Kosova and lirë, mbajtur më 28 shtator 2010, në Amfiteatrin Bibliotekës Kombëtare dhe Universitare në Prishtinë; Continuation De L'histoire Universelle De Messire Jacques Benigne Bossuet Evêque De Meaux depuis 1721 jusqu'à the fin de 1737, Amsterdam 1738, vol. IV, pp. 130-134;Ebru Boyar, Kate Fleet, A Social History of Ottoman Istanbul, Cambridge University Press, 2010;Fariba Zarinebaf, Crime and Punishment in Istanbul: 1700-1800, University of California Press 2011, pp. 57-59;Feti Mehdiu: Shqiptari i Manastirit që tronditi sulltanatin Osman, sipas disa burimeve turke, Fjala and dr Feti Mehdiut mbajtur në Akademinë përkujtimore kushtuar kryengritësit shqiptar, Halil Patron, organizuar nga Radio-Kosova and lirë, mbajtur më 28 shtator 2010, në Amfiteatrin and Bibliotekës Kombëtare dhe Universitare në Prishtinë;Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall, Histoire de l'empire Ottoman, vol. III, translated from the whole par M. Dochez, Paris, 1844, pp. 427-436;JS Bromley, The new Cambridge modern history: The rise of Great Britain and Russia, 1688-1715 / 25, Cambridge University Press, 1970, pp.646;Robert W. Olson; Jews, Janissaries, Esnaf and the Revolt of 1740 in Istanbul: Social Upheaval and Political Realignment in the Ottoman Empire, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. 20, No. 2, May, 1977;Robert W. Olson; The Esnaf and the Patrona Halil Rebellion of 1730: A Realignment in Ottoman Politics? Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. 17, No. 3, Sep., 1974, pp. 329-344;Suraiya Faroqhi, Donald Quataert, An economic and social history of the Ottoman Empire, Cambridge University Press, 1997, pp. 643;Stanford J. Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Volume I, Cambridge University Press, 1976, pp. 240;The Gentelman Magazine, 1731, Vol.1; No.1, pp. 38;Vincent Mignot, The History of the Turkish, or Ottoman Empire: from its Foundation in 1300 to the Peace of Belgrade in 1740, vol. IV, 1787, pp. 313-332; Virginia H. Aksan, Ottoman wars 1700-1870: a besieged Empire, Longman, April 2007, pp 71;
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