More specifically, the Intelligence Unit deals with a division of the Economist that focuses on analysis of the world of business and governments (link)
Albania, a hybrid democracy
Albania continues to be part of the hybrid democracy regime, with a drop of 5,89 points in 2019. This is the lowest level of democracy since 2014, according to historical data published by The Economist.
Albania ranks 79th in the 2019 democracy index
The democracy index is based on five categories: electoral process and pluralism, functioning of the government, political participation, political culture and civil liberties. Based on its results in a series of indicators within these categories, each country is therefore classified as one of the four types of regime: "full democracy", "flourishing democracy", "hybrid regime" or "authoritarian regime".
Albania continues to be part of the hybrid democracy regime, with a drop of 5,89 points in 2019 (the lower the index, the lower the democracy). Compared to a year ago, when the indicator was 5,98, there is a deterioration, which led Albania to fall by three positions (from 76 ° a year ago). This is the lowest level of democracy since 2014, according to historical data published by The Economist.
The deterioration came following the drop in the category of "political participation", which fell by 4,44, from 5,56 a year earlier. Albania ranks best in the category of "civil liberties" with 7,65 points, followed by "electoral process and pluralism" with 7 points, functioning of the government (5,36), political culture (5) and finally political participation ( 4,44). In the latter indicator of political participation, Albania is on par with countries such as Honduras, Bhutan, Guatemala, Haiti.
The western Balkans
Among the countries of the region, in the index of democracy, Serbia is best represented in the region (66), which joins the group of flourishing democracies, Macedonia (77), while Montenegro worsens (84). The least democratic in the region is Bosnia and Herzegovina (102).
In the indicator of political participation, which is very low for Albania, all other countries in the region are better represented, e.g. Serbia has 6,11 points, Macedonia (6,67), Montenegro (5,36), Bosnia (5,56)
The comparison between Albania and neighboring countries
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The most democratic state in the world is Norway, followed by Iceland, Sweden, New Zealand, Finland, Ireland, Denmark, Canada, Australia.
In 2019 the average score of Eastern Europe in the democratic index remained unchanged at 5,42 compared to 2018. This remains significantly lower than the region's score of 5,76 in 2006, when this type of investigation was launched. The improvements in the scores of some countries, in particular Armenia and Ukraine, were offset by the drop in the scores for others, in particular Belarus and the Kyrgyz Republic. In total, scores from eight countries increased in 2019, nine fell and 11 stagnated.
This mixed picture suggests that the democratic malaise of Eastern Europe persists amid a weak political culture, difficulties in safeguarding the rule of law, endemic corruption, rejection by some countries of "liberal" democratic values and a preference for "the strong man "who circumvent political institutions, everything that creates a weak basis for democracy.
No country advanced into this category in 2019, which means that there are still no "complete democracies" in Eastern Europe. There are, however, 12 countries classified as "imperfect democracies", including all 11 EU Member States plus Serbia; and nine classified as "hybrid regimes" (the remaining western Balkan states plus Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia, Georgia and the Kyrgyz Republic). The rest are "authoritarian regimes".
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