Emigration from the southern Italian countries of ancient ethnicity (starting from the fifteenth century after the death of Giorgio Castriota Skanderbeg, hero of every time and country) is structurally linked to the great exodus of millions of Italians, after the two conflicts world, directed towards the Americas, that of the North, especially New York) and that of the South (mostly in Buenos Aires).In the last thirty years a small part towards the newest continent (Australia) while a substantial nucleus headed towards Central Europe especially Germany, Great Britain (in Liverpool, Croydon, Oxford, Herit, Wallington, Edinburgh, Brighton where it is printed still "Albanian Life"), Belgium, Swiss Confederation and other nations. In these countries the Albanian speakers, many Lucanians, have given life, actively participating, to ethnic hearths (in Alb. = Vatre), clubs, societies, charitable associations, communities, together with the brothers of the "diaspora" from Sicily, Calabria, Abruzzo, Puglia, Molise and Campania.
In the U.
S. A - Merka and ftohte
The majority of immigrants, of native ethnicity arbëreshe, is concentrated in New York and New Jersey, ethnic minorities also in the hinterland of Detroit, in San Francisco, in Waterbury (Connecticut) where they formed their own aggregations (such as N.
F. the largest and most representative), with various clubs and maintaining, at the same time, correspondence, exchanges of consumer goods and clothing, with the "katund" of origin; already a hundred in the last century, today about sixty in addition to the large extra-moenia communities, including (in Italy) Palermo, Bari, Rome, Cosenza and the same Power (based on a B. statistic
A. of the years' 8O is strong of about four thousand Albanian speakers of the various southern areas). A gazette entitled "Illyria" which is printed in the Bronx is the coagulant headquarters of Arbëreshe Lucanians and Southerners as well as Kosovars. Numerous Benevolent Societies including Lavello, with the well-known Social Center of New York, the clubs of the Trecchinesi, Rioneresi, of the immigrants of Montalbano Jonico and Irsina, of Melfi and Venosa, of Ginestra and Montescaglioso, and of the extended family of the “Aviglianese nation "In addition to the community of Chicago and of Boston itself (there is printed the newspaper" Dielli ", the oldest sheet of the diaspora in emigration). Various opportunities for aggregation (from the patronal feasts of San Rocco and the Madonna of Constantinople, of Carmine and of San Biagio, of San Gianuario and Sant'Elia, San Donato and San Giustino de 'Jacobis etc.) to promote, with generosity and diligence, fundraisers (dollars to appease the pains and anxieties of rural existence, for rebuild the church of San Nicola scourged by earthquakes or to meet the families affected, sometimes lethally, by the various epidemics, to support the agriculture of our countries mortified by the many downy re, old and new diseases of the vine and the olive tree, essential plants of the economy of the inner areas of the mountain of Potenza and of the badlands of the Matera area, between Ferrandina, Teana, Aliano and the many crib-villages of the region). In recent times the new phenomenon (in particular of the summer 1990-1991) of the so-called “boat-people” has occurred, in fact, in our arbëreshe del Sarmento countries (San Paolo and San Costantino Albanese) and in the Vulture area (from Maschito, Ginestra a Barile, but also from Venosa, Rionero) with a graft of new refugees and skipetare families in the depopulated countries of Lucania, destroyed by the emigration of arms, first, and now also of intelligence towards northern Italy and abroad . New life, therefore, with the merits and defects of a mass immigration wave, to Albania, from Kosovo, from Macedonia.
In Latin America - Merka and Ngrohte
The arbëreshe community of Buenos Aires is of considerable importance today (small groups are also in Bosques, Temperley, Mar del Plata, Rosario, in "Ginestrella" constituted by immigrants of various generations, coming from Vulture and particularly from Ginestra) and in nearby Montevideo (Uruguay). That of Buenos Aires is the largest and most solid Albanian community in the entire South American continent: 25mila are the Arbëreshe, gathered in associations, cenacles, governing bodies, federations of emigrants, sports clubs and committees of popular festivals and dancing evenings. They are mostly southern, of the seven regions that host alloglot communities, and cultivate good and growing relationships with public institutions and mother-country regions and with the same headquarters of the Embassy of the Republic of Albania in Buenos Aires. In Venezuela, starting from the 50 years, "the little Venice" and Caracas, Bolivar, Puerto La Cruz, Maracaibo, become a point of attraction, in terms of work and wealth, of the Lucanian emigration. In fact, of the more than seven thousand our fellow countrymen, many join the Italian-Venezuelan cultural centers and the recreational associations of the Lucanians. A non-marginal tax rate (at least 5%) is made up of third-generation arbëreshe families of Ginestra and Barile as well as of Brindisi di Montagna, San Paolo Albanese and Naples.
In the large modern metropolises (the island's government has recently celebrated the two hundred years of its establishment) of Sidney, Melbourne, Adelaide, in the neighboring island of Tasmania (the capital city is Obart) the many refugees from Albania of the last twenty years have organized a thriving and industrious community, to which new generations of arbëreshe (from Italy) and Kosovars, epirotes, Montenegrins (ex Yugoslavia) have joined. They have relations both with the Catholic Church and with the Byzantine and Orthodox Churches of the countries of origin. Here too a local paper, published in Adelaide, and entitled "Shqiperia" testifies to the anthropological need for the presence and identity of a language, a culture, of a remote Indo-European lineage, of which Nermin Vlora, a scholar of ancient languages, has used to miraculously decipher inscriptions on stone in the Etruscan language. On the subject, the same world-famous Etruscologist Massimo Pallottino, has paid attention and scientific interest.
In the Epirus district on the borders with southern Albania and in the inland Peloponnese, especially in Koropi, Maratona, Spata, the arvanidhi citizens who have the same moral qualities that unite the Arbëreshe in Italy: sacred respect for hospitality, cordiality, simplicity , jealous custody of their variegated traditions and polychrome customs in Byzantine and Orthodox rituals. Language unites us, it is our common denominator. For the record there are many etymologies and toponyms still in use in the spoken arbëreshe of Italy (from Basilicata to Sicily) of frank and unequivocal Greek derivation. Language gives us the opportunity to understand ourselves, as among brothers of one large ethnic family. We all have a duty-right to make it more complete and transmissible through modern teaching tools and information technology, to overcome the gap of a culture, of a paremology, of a literature for centuries, at least five, handed down orally (as reiterated in the project in itinere Irrsae-Basilicata, the well-known Prof. Tullio De Mauro, Professor of Philosophy of Languages at the University of Rome, a scholar and generous supporter of "cut languages" in Italy (with Sergio Salvi) for years. what tools does the Republic of Albania now offer to make the "link" of history and archaic language that unites us for half a millennium less unsteady and temporary? A question, at least for now and in its complete form, without an adequate answer. , about 10 million, including those who have Albanian origins "tout court", live and work scattered all over the planet, like all oppressed peoples - Senator Donato confesses Scutari, former mayor of San Costantino Albanese and always a tenacious advocate of arbëreshe culture and traditions - Albanians are defined as "wandering exiles" (almost in parallel with the tormented Jewish culture) and even in Crimea and Alaska there are registered aggregates Albanians from different parts of the Balkans. The defense of languages and cultures - less - widespread (according to the recent EU terminology, adopted by the European Bureau for Lesser - Used Languages in Dublin - Eire and by the same national federative Committee, Confemili, based in Rome) is an enrichment of the cultural mosaic of the coming Europe, to be built not only in terms of coins / a, but in respect of the individual ethnic-linguistic peculiarities of the fifty and passes historical-cultural "islands" alloglotte of the old continent. The sensitivity of the rulers at various levels must conform, in the course of a revolutionary process of European unity, to the Convention-Framework already approved by various States, including Italy, and push to overcome the residual inertia towards the renewed understanding of an inter-ethnic, supportive and tolerant dimension of peace for all peoples.
In the vast hinterland of Paris (where for many years the eponymous cultural association has published the "Koha Jone" sheet - Our time - which uses, among others, the creative contributions of Ismail Kadare already in the Nobel Prize rose for the literature, there for about ten years in exile) and of Antoine Musacchio descendant of the noble family of Berat, but also to the north and south of France (from Vichy, Saint Raphael, Frejus to Saint Julien Les Metz, Bellevue, Nîmes , Lille) nuclei of Arbëreshe operate, established by at least one generation, reaching also flattering levels of status in local companies, schools, hotels.
From the welcoming and industrious Stuttgart to the urban centers of Sindelfingen, Hamburg and in the German carbon belt, thousands of Lucanian Albanians have, with commitment and dedication, contributed to the formation of national income for several decades before the fall of the Berlin Wall (1989). In a fraternizing environment, they have rebuilt the proud hearths of their never-dormant ethnic identity, in particular from San Costantino Albanese and Maschito.
From Neuchatel to Charleroi, from Beringen to European Brussels, since at least two generations, in factories, mines and other local businesses, not small aggregations come from Maschito, Ginestra and Barile. They also distinguish themselves by giving themselves an appointment on the occasion of patronal festivals and historical events, in the catering, fast food and hotel management sectors.
On the sidelines of the initiatives of the dynamic and accredited "Casa d'Italia, sect. Lucana ”of Berne and Zurich, aggregations of arbëreshe families (in the field of craftsmanship and watchmaking, of typical food productions) have been active for several decades. Also in Butschwill, Bassersdorf, Basel, Diessenhofen, Effretikon, Betteach, there are numerous settlements alloglotti coming from San Paolo Albanese and Ginestra.
In the shadow of ChinRadio's large parabolic antennas that broadcast programs in 31 languages of the world (editorial manager of the "lucanissimo" Johnny Lombardi, a native of Pisticci) in Toronto but also in Montreal, (within Basilucania) and numerous in Port Heady, Mississauga, Downsview, arbëreshe families have helped make the country of the maple leaf flag great.
Two words to explain the difference between the vaccine (which generally requires only one administration or periodic administrations, such as every XNUMX years (as with the hepatitis B vaccine) and the antiviral drug (such as the cocktail for HIV-positive patients, who ingest molecules through daily pills that attack parts of the virus, to directly destroy it). The vaccine consists of the administration of molecules that mimick parts of the virus without being infectious, so that our immune system can develop a memory to recognize those parts (that particular type of antigen) when the virus comes back on the doorstep...this memory in some cases lasts all the life, in other cases (like hepatitis B) a decade or so. Once this immune memory has been developed in our body, the pathogen will have to deal with an extremely powerful arsenal of anti-viral mechanisms (orchestrated by our immune cells) that will kill it in no time (in fact, after we get vaccinated, if we get the flu, we get rid of it without even realizing it...our (memory) immune cells know what to do at that point). Another way to develop this memory is by letting ourselves to be infected — as we've done with lots of infections, with low mortality and low morbidity. The antiviral drug is a molecule that acts against the pathogen too, but it does so on its own — the basic problem of an antiviral is that it doesn't last forever, because everything we eat (the pills) is excreted from our body, in a few hours or few days — but there are also molecules that can float, once you put them into the circle, for quite a few days ...(or techniques that modern pharmacology has been studying for a decade or so, aimed to transform molecules with the objective of extending their permanence in the tissues after being administered, see above: nanotechnology therapy). Bibliography
ChinRadio - A multilingual & Multicultural Broadcasting, 622 College Street, Toronto (Ontario) Canada; Dielli - The oldest Albanian Newspaper in the world (in English and Albanian), Boston, Mass, USA, Radio Tirana - Fax - Ass. Mediterranea, Presidente Gaetano Grillo, Milan; Schirone M. "Those with a brown face (I lucani in the world)", Planet Book ed., (2 voll.) 1998; Albanian Life, Monthly magazine, R. Hibbert editor, Brighton (Great Britain).
Minimal ethnic gloss
Arberia: "ideal" territory that groups the "vatre" of all the Albanian-speaking communities around the world.
Arbëreshe: they are citizens of Albanian origin settled in the ethnic communities of the southern regions of Italy, from the fifteenth century onwards.
Arberori: they are the Albanian speakers of other Eastern countries (Romania, Hungary, etc.) traditionally foreign to the historical territory.
Arvanidhi: the citizens of Albanian origin and language of Greece who do not recognize, yet, the existence of cultures and languages other than the official one in Ellade.
Shqiperia: the "Land of the Eagles" is today's Albania.
Shqipetar: citizens of Albanian nationality residing in the Republic with capital Tirana.
Kosovars: the citizens (of former Yugoslavia) with Albanian mother tongue taught at the University of Prishtina, were part of the "Greater Albania".
Donato Michele Mazzeo (Barile, 1947) graduated in Foreign Languages and Literature, qualified to teach English Language and Civilization in High Schools, enrolled in the National Order of Journalists and Publicists in Rome, already a contributor to newspapers and various periodicals, is currently editor outside of the magazine `Basilicata Region / News'; Director-Founder of "Basilicata Arbéreshe" and of the notebooks.
Consultant of the CIFE of the Department of Studies of Potenza, he collaborates with the magazine of educational experimentation update "Il Nodo". He is a Study-Visits scholar and contact person for the Basilicata del Co.
Li., Rome, member of the E.
L. (European Bureau for Lesser-Used Languages), Executive member of the F.
P. based in Cannes (France).
Among the titles of published volumes: Ethnography and Albanesità (Potenza, 1987), Kroj Arrévet - Albania of Basilicata (Rionero, 1985), Ishi nje here (Lavello, 1990), Due Francesi in Acerenza (Lavello, 1995), Michele Granata among the Lucan Martyrs of the Neapolitan Republic of 1799 (Lavello, 1998).
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